Since sociologists published their crucial works during the 1980s and early 1990s on the issues of “public religion” and the “desecularization” of the political arena, it became increasingly apparent that the post-Enlightenment secular paradigm which dominated the discourse of the social sciences during the twentieth century meets fundamental challenges. The complex movements that accompanied the evolvement of globalization also demonstrated that it is indispensable to understand and analyse how religion plays a role within the social and the political reality of the contemporary societies. The “clash of civilizations” thesis of Samuel Huntington provoked intensive debates and positioned religion as the central factor of the modern and postmodern political context. In effect of these developments a so-called post-secular turn seems to be occurring within social and political sciences, as well as in the study of international relations. Furthermore, these developments shed a new light on the works of philosophers who dealt with religious issues during the second part of the last century and — in contrast with the secular and atheistic tendencies of modern philosophy — rendered the question of religion a crucial topic for philosophy. Finally, the more or less marginalised or isolated debates of theologians and other experts on the question of inter-religious dialogue and other theological issues—like political theologies—gained a general interest. Negligence of the problems concerning religion or the taken for granted applicability of the secular paradigm in the social sciences and political theory turned into a often embarrassed concern for “the religious” and its influence on the political.